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Kataneh Abrari

Assistant Professor of Physiology

Selected Publications

Ghasemi, M., Abrari, K., Goudarzi, I., Rashidy-Pour, A. Effect of WIN55-212-2 and consequences of extinction training on conditioned fear memory in PTSD male rats (2017) Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 8 (6), pp. 493-502.

Introduction: This study investigates the effects of cannabinoid agonist WIN55-212-2 on acquisition and consolidation phases of the fear memory extinction and also on anxiety and motor activity. Methods: In this study, we used SPS & S model to induce post-traumatic stress disorder. One week after SPS, to establish a conditioned fear memory, rats received an electric foot shock within shock chamber. After 24 h, for extinction training, the rats were placed back to the chamber for 9 min, without receiving any shock. In 3 consecutive days and on days 17, 24 and 37, extinction tests were carried out and the freezing behavior was evaluated. Thirty minutes before the first three extinction tests, animals received IP injections of WIN or vehicle. Anxiety-like behavior examined with elevated plus-maze and motor activity with open field, 32 days after conditioning. Results: Exaggerated and continued conditioned fear memory observed in SPS & S group compared with shock group. IP injection of a 0.25 mg/kg dose of WIN before extinction training led to reducing fear responses in animals. Conclusion: IP injection of WIN increased acquisition or consolidation of fear memory extinction. SPS & S caused anxiety and this effect improved by the agonist (0.25 mg/kg).

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Cannabinoids; Extinction; Post-traumatic stress disorder; Win 55212-2
INDEX KEYWORDS: 2,3 dihydro 5 methyl 3 (morpholinomethyl) 6 (1 naphthoyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3 de][1,4]benzoxazine, animal experiment; animal model; anxiety; Article; conditioning; controlled study; drug effect; elevated plus maze test; fear; footshock; male; memory; memory consolidation; motor activity; nonhuman; open field test; posttraumatic stress disorder; rat; reinforcement
PUBLISHER: Iran University of Medical Sciences

Bagherpour Zarchi, M., Divsalar, A., Abrari, K., Rezaei, A. Multiple spectroscopic studies of the interaction between a quaternary ammonium-based cationic Gemini surfactant (as a carrier) and human erythropoietin (2017) Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, pp. 1-8. Article in Press.

DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2017.1391123

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hematopoietic growth factor. This substance, as a strong cell protector, can increase cell maintenance during different damages of central nervous system. Since the brain-blood barrier prevents the entrance of large proteins similar to EPO into the brain, its systemic delivery gets limited. The aim of this study was to find an alternative approach for EPO delivery into the brain to skip the blood-brain barrier prevention. So, a new quaternary ammonium-based cationic Gemini surfactant has been used to study the interaction of the cationic Gemini surfactant (as a carrier) with EPO using various spectroscopic techniques of (fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD)) and thermal denaturation. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies show the formation of Gemini-EPO complex and also static quenching of protein upon this interaction. The binding parameters of number of binding sites, binding affinity, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated according to fluorescence quenching studies. Also, CD results have further represented that the content of regular secondary structure of EPO did not show any significant alterations by increasing the Gemini concentration. Finally, thermal denaturation behavior of EPO results indicates decreasing the thermal stability of protein in the presence of Gemini. In conclusion, the obtained results proposed that Gemini as a cationic surfactant can bind to EPO without any significant diverse effects on the structure of this drug (EPO) which can be considered as a candidate for EPO delivery in future. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: blood-brain barrier; erythropoietin; fluorescence spectroscopy; Gemini; thermal denaturation
PUBLISHER: Taylor and Francis Ltd.

Soleimani, E., Goudarzi, I., Abrari, K., Lashkarbolouki, T. Maternal administration of melatonin prevents spatial learning and memory deficits induced by developmental ethanol and lead co-exposure (2017) Physiology and Behavior, 173, pp. 200-208.

DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.02.012

Melatonin is a radical scavenger with the ability to remove reactive oxidant species. There is report that co-exposure to lead and ethanol during developmental stages induces learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress. Here, we studied the effect of melatonin, with strong antioxidant properties, on memory deficits induced by lead and ethanol co-exposure and oxidative stress in hippocampus. Pregnant rats in lead and ethanol co-exposure group received lead acetate of 0.2% in distilled drinking water and ethanol (4 g/kg) by oral gavages once daily from the 5th day of gestation until weaning. Rats received 10 mg/kg melatonin by oral gavages. On postnatal days (PD) 30, rats trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 37, a probe test was done and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were evaluated. Results demonstrated lead and ethanol co-exposed rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency in probe trial test and had significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment could improve memory deficits, antioxidants activity and reduced MDA levels in the hippocampus. We conclude, co-exposure to lead and ethanol impair memory and melatonin can prevent from it by oxidative stress modulation. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Lead and ethanol co-exposure; Melatonin; Oxidative stress; Rat; Spatial memory
INDEX KEYWORDS: alcohol; catalase; drinking water; glutathione peroxidase; lead; lead acetate; malonaldehyde; melatonin; superoxide dismutase; thiobarbituric acid reactive substance; alcohol; antioxidant; catalase; glutathione peroxidase; lead; melatonin; superoxide dismutase, animal experiment; animal model; antioxidant activity; Article; atomic absorption spectrometry; comparative study; controlled study; female; hippocampus; lipid peroxidation; long term memory; male; memory disorder; Morris water maze test; nonhuman; oxidative stress; priority journal; rat; spatial learning; spatial memory; swimming; visual discrimination; age; analysis of variance; animal; chemically induced; drug administration; drug effects; maternal exposure; maze test; Memory Disorders; metabolism; newborn; pregnancy; spatial learning; Wistar rat, Age Factors; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Animals, Newborn; Antioxidants; Catalase; Drug Administration Schedule; Ethanol; Female; Glutathione Peroxidase; Hippocampus; Lead; Lipid Peroxidation; Male; Maternal Exposure; Maze Learning; Melatonin; Memory Disorders; Pregnancy; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Spatial Learning; Superoxide Dismutase; Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
PUBLISHER: Elsevier Inc.

Sarfi, M., Elahdadi Salmani, M., Goudarzi, I., Lashkar Boluki, T., Abrari, K. Evaluating the role of astrocytes on β-estradiol effect on seizures of Pilocarpine epileptic model (2017) European Journal of Pharmacology, 797, pp. 32-38.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.01.005

Epilepsy with periodic and unpredictable seizures is associated with hippocampal glutamate toxicity and tissue reorganization. Astrocytes play an important role in mediating the neuroprotective effects of estradiol and reducing seizure severity. Accordingly, the protective effects of low and high doses of estradiol on behavioral, astrocytic involvement and neuronal survival aspects of Pilocarpine-induced epilepsy were investigated. Lithium- Pilocarpine (30 mg/kg) model was used to provoke epilepsy. Βeta-estradiol (2,40 μg/µl) was injected subcutaneously from 48 before to 48 h after seizure induction. Behavioral convulsions were then monitored and recorded on the day of induction. Four weeks later, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and the astrocyte transporter GLT-1 expression of the hippocampus were measured. Moreover, hippocampal glutamate and GABA were evaluated to study excitability changes. Finally, neuronal counting in the hippocampus was also performed using Nissl staining. The latency for generalized clonic (GC) convulsions significantly increased while the rate of GC and death significantly reduced due to β-estradiol treatment. GS activity and GLT-1 expression increased in the groups receiving the high dose of β-estradiol and Pilocarpine. Furthermore, the amount of both GABA and glutamate content decreased due to high dose of estradiol, while only GABA increased in Pilocarpine treated rats. Finally, administration of β-estradiol with low and high doses increased and improved the density of nerve cells. It is concluded that chronic administration β-estradiol has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties which are plausibly linked to astrocytic activity. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Astrocyte; Epilepsy; GLT-1 transporter; Glutamine synthetase; β-estradiol
INDEX KEYWORDS: 4 aminobutyric acid; estradiol; glutamate ammonia ligase; glutamic acid; lithium; pilocarpine; sodium glucose cotransporter 1; estradiol; excitatory amino acid transporter 2; glutamate ammonia ligase; pilocarpine; Slc1a2 protein, rat, animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; anticonvulsant activity; Article; astrocyte; cell density; chronic drug administration; clonic seizure; controlled study; drug megadose; drug screening; enzyme activity; female; hippocampus; latent period; nerve cell excitability; neuroprotection; nonhuman; protein expression; rat; animal; astrocyte; body weight; chemically induced; disease model; dose response; drug effects; metabolism; nerve cell; pathology; Seizures; Wistar rat, Animals; Astrocytes; Body Weight; Disease Models, Animal; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Estradiol; Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2; Female; Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase; Hippocampus; Neurons; Pilocarpine; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Seizures
PUBLISHER: Elsevier B.V.

Sargolzehi, A., Abrari, K., Salmani, M.E., Goudarzi, I. Effects of melatonin on anxiety- like behaviors induced by post–traumatic stress disorder in rat (2016) Koomesh, 17 (2), pp. 479-485.

Introduction: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of multiple injections of melatonin on anxiety like behaviors induced by PTSD. Materials and methods: PTSD induced in 60 male wistar rats, by combining the shock and single-prolonged stress method (S&SPS). Animals received electric shock (1 mA, 2s) for 5 days, and then on the day 6 they underwent three stages of SPS (restrained for 2 hours, forced swimming for 20 minutes and anesthetized by diethyl ether for 15 minutes). Seven days after PTSD induction, elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field tests were performed to measure anxiety profile. Animals received multiple subcutaneous injections of melatonin (5, 10, 15 mg/kg) or saline, within the 7 days after PTSD. Results: The control (saline) and treated (melatonin) groups showed significant differences in the percentage of time spent in open arms of the EPM. Melatonin, at dose of 15mg/kg, significantly increased the time spent in open arms of the EPM than the corresponding control group. Animals who received 10mg/kg melatonin showed a significant increase in crossing behavior in open field test than the corresponding control group. Conclusion: Our study showed that melatonin is able to reduce PTSD-induced anxiety-like behaviors in rats. © 2015, Singapore Medical Association. All rights reserved.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Anxiety; Melatonin; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; Rats
INDEX KEYWORDS: melatonin, animal experiment; animal model; anxiety disorder; Article; controlled study; disease association; electric shock; elevated plus maze test; forced swim test; male; nonhuman; outcome assessment; posttraumatic stress disorder; rat
PUBLISHER: Semnan University of Medical Sciences

Mokhtarpour, M., Elahdadi Salmani, M., Lashkarbolouki, T., Abrari, K., Goudarzi, I. Lateral hypothalamus orexinergic system modulates the stress effect on pentylenetetrazol induced seizures through corticotropin releasing hormone receptor type 1 (2016) Neuropharmacology, 110, pp. 15-24.

DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.07.005

Stress is a trigger factor for seizure initiation which activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as well other brain areas. In this respect, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and lateral hypothalamus (LH) orexinergic system are involved in seizure occurrence. In this study, we investigated the role of LH area and orexin expression in (mediation of) stress effect on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) -induced seizures with hippocampal involvement. Two mild foot shock stresses were applied to intact and adrenalectomized animals; with or without CRHr1 blocking (NBI 27914) in the LH area. Then, changes in orexin production were evaluated by RT-PCR. Intravenous PTZ infusion (25 mg/ml) -induced convulsions were scored upon modified Racine scale. Finally, hippocampal glutamate and GABA were evaluated to study excitability changes. We demonstrated that the duration and severity of convulsions in stress-induced as well as adrenalectomized group were increased. Plasma corticosterone (CRT) level and orexin mRNA expression were built up in the stress and/or seizure groups. Furthermore, glutamate and GABA content was increased and decreased respectively due to stress and seizures. In contrast, rats receiving CRHr1 inhibitor showed reduced severity and duration of seizures, increased GABA, decreased glutamate and corticosterone and also orexin mRNA compared to the inhibitor free rats. Stress and adrenalectomy induced augmenting effect on seizure severity and duration and the subsequent reduction due to CRHr1 blocking with parallel orexin mRNA changes, indicated the likely involvement of CRH1r induced orexin expression of the LH in gating stress effect on convulsions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: CRH; HPA axis; Orexin; PTZ; Seizure; Stress
INDEX KEYWORDS: 4 aminobutyric acid; corticosterone; corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1; glutamic acid; messenger RNA; orexin; pentetrazole; 2-methyl-4-(N-propyl-N-cycloproanemethylamino)-5-chloro-6-(2,4,6-trichloranilino)pyrimidine; aniline derivative; corticotropin releasing factor receptor; corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1; orexin; pentetrazole; pyrimidine derivative, adult; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; Article; blood level; brain function; brain region; controlled study; disease activity; disease association; disease duration; footshock; gene expression; lateral hypothalamus; male; molecular dynamics; molecular pathology; nonhuman; priority journal; protein determination; protein expression; protein function; rat; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; seizure; stress; animal; antagonists and inhibitors; biosynthesis; chemically induced; drug effects; lateral hypothalamus; mental stress; metabolism; prevention and control; psychology; seizure; Wistar rat, Aniline Compounds; Animals; Hypothalamic Area, Lateral; Male; Orexins; Pentylenetetrazole; Pyrimidines; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; Seizures; Stress, Psychological
PUBLISHER: Elsevier Ltd

Soleimani, E., Goudarzi, I., Abrari, K., Lashkarbolouki, T. The combined effects of developmental lead and ethanol exposure on hippocampus dependent spatial learning and memory in rats: Role of oxidative stress (2016) Food and Chemical Toxicology, 96, pp. 263-272.

DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.07.009

Either developmental lead or ethanol exposure can impair learning and memory via induction of oxidative stress, which results in neuronal damage. we examined the effect of combined exposure with lead and ethanol on spatial learning and memory in offspring and oxidative stress in hippocampus. Rats were exposed to lead (0.2% in drinking water) or ethanol (4 g/kg) either individually or in combination in 5th day gestation through weaning. On postnatal days (PD) 30, rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 37, a probe test was done. Also, oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that lead + ethanol co-exposed rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency and average proximity in probe trial test. There was significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hippocampus of animals co-exposed to lead and ethanol compared with their individual exposures. We suggest that maternal consumption of ethanol during lead exposure has pronounced detrimental effects on memory, which may be mediated by oxidative stress. © 2016

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Ethanol; Lead; Oxidative stress; Rat; Spatial memory
INDEX KEYWORDS: alcohol; catalase; glutathione peroxidase; lead; malonaldehyde; superoxide dismutase; alcohol; catalase; drug combination; glutathione peroxidase; lead; malonaldehyde; superoxide dismutase, adult; alcohol consumption; animal experiment; animal tissue; Article; controlled study; developmental toxicity; escape behavior; female; gestation period; hippocampus; latent period; male; memory; nonhuman; oxidative stress; perinatal period; prenatal exposure; rat; spatial learning; animal; developmental disorder; drug combination; drug effects; hippocampus; lead poisoning; maze test; memory; metabolism; oxidative stress; spatial learning; Wistar rat, Animals; Catalase; Developmental Disabilities; Drug Combinations; Ethanol; Glutathione Peroxidase; Hippocampus; Lead; Lead Poisoning; Male; Malondialdehyde; Maze Learning; Memory; Oxidative Stress; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Spatial Learning; Superoxide Dismutase
PUBLISHER: Elsevier Ltd

Said Mohammadi, H., Goudarzi, I., Lashkarbolouki, T., Abrari, K., Elahdadi Salmani, M. Chronic administration of quercetin prevent spatial learning and memory deficits provoked by chronic stress in rats (2014) Behavioural Brain Research, 270, pp. 196-205.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.05.015

There are several reports that cognitive impairment is observed in stress related disorders and chronic stress impairs learning and memory. However, very few studies have looked into the possible ways of preventing this stress-induced deficit. This research study was conducted to evaluate the effects of quercetin, a natural flavonoid, with strong antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties, on chronic stress induced learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress in hippocampus. For chronic stress, rats were restrained daily for 6. h/day (from 9:00 to 15:00) for 21 days in well-ventilated plexiglass tubes without access to food and water. The animals were injected with quercetin or vehicle 60. min before restraint stress over a period of 21 days. Then, rats trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 28, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. In addition, oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were evaluated. Results of this study demonstrated that chronic stress exposure rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency and average proximity in probe trial test. Quercetin (50. mg/kg) treatment during restraint stress (21 days) markedly decreased escape latency and increased time spent in target quadrant during Morris water maze task. In comparison to vehicle treated group, chronic-stress group had significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and significantly lower glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the hippocampus. Quercetin treatment caused a significant decrease in the hippocampus MDA levels and improves SOD and GPx activities in stressed animals. Finally, quercetin significantly decreased plasma corticosterone levels in stressed animals. Based on results of this study, chronic stress has detrimental effects on learning and memory and quercetin treatment can prevent from oxidative stress and impairment of learning and memory induced by chronic stress. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Chronic stress; Oxidative stress; Quercetin; Rat; Spatial memory
INDEX KEYWORDS: corticosterone; glutathione peroxidase; malonaldehyde; quercetin; superoxide dismutase; antioxidant; corticosterone; glutathione peroxidase; malonaldehyde; quercetin; superoxide dismutase, amnesia; analysis of variance; animal experiment; animal model; antioxidant activity; article; chronic stress; cognition; controlled study; corticosterone blood level; diet therapy; enzyme activity; hippocampus; immobilization stress; latent period; memory consolidation; Morris water maze test; neuroprotection; nonhuman; oxidative stress; priority journal; probe test; rat; spatial learning; training; animal; blood; complication; drug effects; exercise; male; maze test; Memory Disorders; mental stress; metabolism; neuropsychological test; procedures; psychology; spatial learning; spatial memory; time; treatment outcome; Wistar rat, Animals; Antioxidants; Corticosterone; Glutathione Peroxidase; Hippocampus; Male; Malondialdehyde; Maze Learning; Memory Disorders; Neuropsychological Tests; Quercetin; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Restraint, Physical; Spatial Learning; Spatial Memory; Stress, Psychological; Superoxide Dismutase; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome
PUBLISHER: Elsevier

Firozan, B., Goudarzi, I., Elahdadi Salmani, M., Lashkarbolouki, T., Rezaei, A., Abrari, K. Estradiol increases expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor after acute administration of ethanol in the neonatal rat cerebellum (2014) European Journal of Pharmacology, 732 (1), pp. 1-11.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.02.041

Recently it has been shown that estradiol prevents the toxicity of ethanol in developing cerebellum. The neuroprotective effect of estradiol is not due to a single phenomenon but rather encompasses a spectrum of independent proccesses. According to the specific timing of Purkinje cell vulnerability to ethanol and several protective mechanisms of estradiol, we considered the neurotrophin system, as a regulator of differentiation, maturation and survival of neurons during CNS development. Interactions between estrogen and Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, an essential factor in neuronal survival) lead us to investigate involvement of BDNF pathway in neuroprotective effects of estrogen against ethanol toxicity. In this study, 17β-estradiol (300-900 μg/kg) was injected subcutaneously in postnatal day (PD) 4, 30 min prior to intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (6 g/kg) in rat pups. Eight hours after injection of ethanol, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were assayed. Behavioral studies, including rotarod and locomotor activity tests were performed in PD 21-23 and histological study was performed after completion of behavioral tests in PD 23. Our results indicated that estradiol increased BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the presence of ethanol. We also observed that pretreatment with estradiol significantly attenuated ethanol-induced motoric impairment. Histological analysis also demonstrated that estradiol prevented Purkinje cell loss following ethanol treatment. These results provide evidence on the possible mechanisms of estradiol neuroprotection against ethanol toxicity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: 17β-estradiol; Brain derived neurotrophic factor; Ethanol; Neuroprotection; Purkinje cell
INDEX KEYWORDS: alcohol; brain derived neurotrophic factor; complementary DNA; estradiol; messenger RNA; alcohol; brain derived neurotrophic factor; central depressant agent; estradiol; neuroprotective agent, alcohol blood level; animal behavior; animal tissue; article; cell loss; cerebellum; controlled study; DNA synthesis; drug mechanism; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; experimental locomotor activity test; female; histology; male; motor dysfunction; neuroprotection; newborn; nonhuman; open field test; perinatal period; priority journal; protein expression; Purkinje cell; rat; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; RNA extraction; rotarod test; animal; blood; cerebellum; drug effects; metabolism; motor activity; pathology; psychomotor performance; signal transduction, Animals; Animals, Newborn; Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; Central Nervous System Depressants; Cerebellum; Estradiol; Ethanol; Motor Activity; Neuroprotective Agents; Psychomotor Performance; Rats; Signal Transduction
PUBLISHER: Elsevier

Modir, F., Elahdadi Salmani, M., Goudarzi, I., Lashkarboluki, T., Abrari, K. Prenatal stress decreases spatial learning and memory retrieval of the adult male offspring of rats (2014) Physiology and Behavior, 129, pp. 104-109.

DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.02.040

Introduction: Early life or prenatal stress induces many lifelong, mostly cognitive, homeostatic alterations in the behavior of the offspring. Purpose: We investigated the effect of heterogeneous sequential stress (HSS) at three separate periods, before and during the first and second half of pregnancies on spatial learning and memory retrieval of adult male offspring. Method: HSS is composed of several stressors, each in a day, during nine consecutive days including; restraint, swimming, isolation, and water and food deprivation on Wistar rats. The offspring were studied in a Morris water maze (MWM) apparatus to explore the latency, distance, proximity and target to opposite area as measures of learning and memory. Serum corticosterone was measured as a criterion of stress application. Results: HSS increased blood corticosterone in dams of PS2 (Pregnancy Stress second half), and also in adult male offspring from BPS (Before Pregnancy Stress) and PS1 (Pregnancy Stress first half) groups. The weight of the offspring decreased in the PS1 and PS2 groups. While distance traveled and latency to locate the hidden platform were increased in BPS and PS1 acquisition trials, swimming speed was unchanged during the acquisition and retrieval tests. Moreover, time to platform location was increased in BPS and PS1 during retention tests. While control rats spent more time in the target quadrant, stressed animals spent a longer duration in the opposite quadrant. Furthermore, proximity measure was increased in all stress treated rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that prenatal stress, around the beginning of the pregnancy, increases corticosterone in adult male offspring, which might be the basis for spatial learning and memory retrieval deficits in this study. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Adult offspring; Corticosterone; Learning and memory; Morris water maze; Prenatal stress
INDEX KEYWORDS: corticosterone; corticosterone, adult; animal experiment; article; birth weight; controlled study; corticosterone blood level; female; first trimester pregnancy; food deprivation; heterogeneous sequential stress; immobilization stress; latent period; learning; male; memory; Morris water maze test; nonhuman; prenatal stress; priority journal; progeny; rat; second trimester pregnancy; spatial learning; swimming; third trimester pregnancy; water deprivation; animal; blood; complication; Learning Disorders; maze test; Memory Disorders; mental stress; neuropsychological test; pregnancy; prenatal exposure; task performance; time; Wistar rat, Animals; Birth Weight; Corticosterone; Female; Learning Disorders; Male; Maze Learning; Memory Disorders; Neuropsychological Tests; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; Rats, Wistar; Stress, Psychological; Swimming; Task Performance and Analysis; Time Factors
PUBLISHER: Elsevier Inc.

Shourmasti, F.R., Goudarzi, I., Abrari, K., Salmani, M.E., Laskarbolouki, T. Riluzole ameliorates harmaline-induced tremor in rat (2014) Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 5 (2), pp. 138-143.

Introduction: Excessive olivo-cerebellar burst-firing occurs during harmaline-induced tremor. We hypothesized that antiglutamatergic agents would suppress harmaline tremor. From this point of view, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of riluzole on harmaline-induced tremor in rat. Methods: Four groups of Wistar rats weighing 80-100 g were injected with harmaline (30 mg/ kg i.p.) for inducing experimental tremors. The rats in group 1 served as control, whereas the animals in groups 2, 3 and 4 were also given riluzole intraperitonealy at doses of 2, 4 and 8 mg/ kg 30 min before and 90 min after harmaline administration. The onset latency, intensity and duration of tremor were recorded. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that riluzole could significantly increase latency period, and reduce duration and intensity of tremor. Discussion: It is concluded that pretreatment of riluzole can ameliorate harmaline-induced tremor in rats.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Harmaline; Rat; Riluzole; Tremor
INDEX KEYWORDS: harmaline; riluzole, animal experiment; animal model; article; controlled study; disease duration; disease severity; drug effect; drug efficacy; experimental study; latent period; male; nonhuman; rat; treatment response; tremor; Wistar rat
PUBLISHER: Iran University of Medical Sciences

Paj, P., Salmani, M.E., Shajiee, H., Abiri, H., Goudarzi, I., Abrari, K. Stress during first pregnancy increases seizure threshold in adult male offspring (2014) Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 17 (1), pp. 34-40.

Objective(s): Stress induces many homeostatic aberrations which are followed by lifelong allostatic responses. Epilepsy is developed or influenced by different environmental factors, i.e. prenatal stress which makes many contradictory developmental changes in seizure threshold and intensity. We investigated the potential seizure response of the rat offspring to prenatal stress; the stress which was applied to their mothers. Materials and Methods: Nine day heterogeneous sequential stress (HSS) model was used before and during the first and before the second pregnancy. The kindling was induced using 13 IP injections of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) every 48 hr to adult male Wistar rat's offspring. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that, before pregnancy stress decreased the rate of kindling (P<0.05) in the offspring, while stress which was applied during pregnancy completely prevented kindling (P <0.001). Further, their convulsive latency was increased and tonic clonic seizure duration was decreased. In contrast, previous pregnancy and between pregnancies stress could not change kindling process. Although maternal separation stress did not change kindling development, it could increase convulsive intensities by elongating the duration of seizures (P<0.05) and reducing convulsion latency (P <0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that stress detrimental effects could be prevented by stress which was applied around first pregnancy; however this beneficial effect is weakened by before second pregnancy stress.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Kindling; Pentylenetetrazol; Pregnancy; Seizure; Stress
INDEX KEYWORDS: animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; clonic seizure; controlled study; disease course; female; immobilization stress; kindling; male; nonhuman; pregnancy; rat; seizure threshold; stress; tonic clonic seizure

Tamadoni, M., GhasemKashani, M.H., Ghorbanian, M.T., Abrari, K., Arashpour, R. Neuroprotective effects of carnosic acid on the hippocampus of 6-hydroxydopamine injured rats (2014) Koomesh, 15 (2), pp. 232-241.

Introduction: The reduction of dopamine level caused by neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) may reduce the production of new neurons in dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. In addition, there is a direct link between the reduction of neurons in the hippocampus and memory impairment. In this study, the effect of carnosic acid (CA) on the hippocampal neurogenesis was evaluated after 6-OHDA injury. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. First group was injected by bilateral intra-nigral of 6-OHDA at a dose of 6μg (injury). Groups 2-5 were injured rats which received orally Rosemary extract containing 40% CA at doses of 25, 50 and100 mg/kg (treated) and distilled water (control), once daily in a period of 14 days before and after injury. The sixth group (sham) was injected with saline instead of neurotoxin. After treatment, the brains were removed and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin and cut into 10μm thick slices. Sections were stained with cresyl fast violet and cell counting of hippocampal regions was done.The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, compared to sham-operated rats, was verified by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. Results: Immunostaining analysis revealed a high density of TH+ cells in sham compared to injured group. The number of DG granular and CA1 pyramidal cells were decreased significantly in both control and injured groups compared to sham (P<0.05). The number of granular and CA1pyramidal cells were increased significantly in CA (25, 50,100) and CA (50,100) treated groups respectively, compared to control and injured rats (P<0.05). The number of CA3 pyramidal cells was not increased significantly in treated groups compared to control and injured rats. Conclusion: CA plays an important role in protecting hippocampal neurons from further damage in response to 6-OHDA. Then it is the effective herbal drug with treatment potential to improve memory impairment in PD which caused by neurons degeneration in the hippocampus.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: 6-Hydroxydopamine; Carnosic acid; Dopamine; Hippocampus; Neuroprotective
INDEX KEYWORDS: carnosic acid; oxidopamine; Rosmarinus officinalis extract, animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; brain injury; controlled study; hippocampal CA1 region; immunohistochemistry; male; memory disorder; nervous system development; neuroprotection; nonhuman; pyramidal nerve cell; rat
PUBLISHER: Semnan University of Medical Sciences

Alijan-Pour, J., Abrari, K., Lashkar Bluki, T., Ghorbanian, M.T., Goudarzi, I., Elahdadi Salmani, M., Mirshekar, M. Erratum: Acute ethanol administration affects memory reactivation: A look at the neuronal density and apoptosis in the rat hippocampus (Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior (2012) 102:2 (321 - 328)) (2014) Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 125, p. 85.

DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2014.05.020
INDEX KEYWORDS: Erratum; retracted article
PUBLISHER: Elsevier Inc.

Ghasemi, M., Abrari, K., Goudarzi, I., Rashidy-Pour, A., Salmani, M.E. Effect of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist WIN55, 212-2 on the Anxiety Induced By PTSD in Male Rats (2014) Physiology and Pharmacology, 18 (3), pp. 259-270.

Introduction: Posttraumatic stress disorder is a severe anxiety disorder caused by exposure to traumatic events. The aim of this study was to induce PTSD in rats and examine the effect of WIN55-212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on anxiety.
Methods: SPS&S model was used to induce PTSD in 56 male Wistar rats. Rats were restrained for 2 h, immediately followed by forced swimming for 20 min. After 15 min of recuperation, animals were exposed to diethyl ether until they lost consciousness. Thirty min later, rats received an electric foot shock in a shock chamber. Rats which were in the shock group, without experiencing SPS, only received an electrical foot shock. Animals received IP injections of WIN (two doses) or vehicle, before tests, in 3 continuous days. For PTSD induction, conditioned fear response was measured. Anxiety-like behavior was examined twice with elevated plus-maze.
Results: PTSD induction with SPS&S significantly decreased open arm time (OAT) and open arm entry (OAE) parameter, as compared to the control. WIN (0.25 mg/kg) significantly increased OAT as compared with the control.
Conclusion: WIN (0.25 mg/kg) decreased the anxiety like behavior induced by PTSD, so it seems to have antianxiety effect. © 2014, National Research Council of Canada. All rights reserved.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Anxiety; Cannabinoid receptors; Post-traumatic stress disorder; WIN55-212-2
INDEX KEYWORDS: cannabinoid receptor agonist; unclassified drug; win55-212-2, animal experiment; animal model; anxiety; Article; controlled study; electric shock; elevated plus maze test; fear; forced swim test; male; nonhuman; posttraumatic stress disorder; rat
PUBLISHER: Iranian Society of Physiology and Pharmacology

Akbari, N., Salmani, M.E., Goudarzvand, M., Boluki, T.L., Goudarzi, I., Abrari, K. Unilateral hypothalamus inactivation prevents PTZ kindling development through hippocampal orexin receptor 1 modulation (2014) Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 5 (1), pp. 66-73.

Introduction: Epilepsy is a neural disorder in which abnormal plastic changes during short and long term periods lead to increased excitability of brain tissue. Kindling is an animal model of epileptogenesis which results in changes of synaptic plasticity due to repetitive electrical or chemical sub-convulsive stimulations of the brain. Lateral hypothalamus, as the main niche of orexin neurons with extensive projections, is involved in sleep and wakefulness and so it affects the excitability of the brain. Therefore, we investigated whether lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) inactivation or orexin-A receptor blocking could change convulsive behavior of acute and kindled PTZ treated animals and if glutamate has a role in this regard. Methods: Kindling was induced by 40 mg/kg PTZ, every 48 hours up to 13 injections to each rat. Three consecutive stages 4 or 5 of convulsive behavior were used to ensure kindling. Lidocaine was injected stereotaxically to inactivate LHA, unilaterally. SB334867 used for orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) blocking administered in CSF. Results: We demonstrated that LHA inactivation prevented PTZ kindling and hence, excitability evolution. Hippocampal glutamate content was decreased due to LHA inactivation, OX1R antagonist infusion, lidocaine injection and kindled groups. In accordance, OX1R antagonist (SB334867) and lidocaine injection decreased PTZ single dose induced convulsive behavior. While orexin-A i.c.v. infusion increased hippocampal glutamate content, it did not change PTZ induced convulsive intensity. Discussion: It is concluded that LHA inactivation prevented kindling development probably through orexin receptor antagonism. CSF orexin probably acts as an inhibitory step on convulsive intensity through another unknown process.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Convulsion; Epileptogenesis; Kindling development; Orexinergic system; Pentylenetetrazol
INDEX KEYWORDS: 1 (2 methyl 6 benzoxazolyl) 3 (1,5 naphthyridin 4 yl)urea; glutamic acid; lidocaine; orexin 1 receptor; orexin A; pentetrazole, amino acid brain level; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; controlled study; convulsion; drug mechanism; drug receptor binding; hippocampus; hypothalamus; kindling; lateral hypothalamus; male; nerve excitability; neuromodulation; nonhuman; rat; receptor blocking; seizure
PUBLISHER: Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mirshekar, M., Abrari, K., Goudarzi, I., Rashidy-Pour, A. Systemic administrations of β-estradiol alleviate both conditioned and sensitized fear responses in an ovariectomized rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder (2013) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 102, pp. 12-19.

DOI: 10.1016/j.nlm.2013.02.003

Although no single widely accepted animal model of PTSD has been established to date, the single prolonged stress (SPS) animal model has been partially validated as a model for PTSD. SPS rats mimic the pathophysiological abnormalities and behavioral characteristics of PTSD, such as enhanced fear response to the traumatic cue (conditioned fear response) and hyper arousal (the sensitized fear response). In the present study we are looking at PTSD-like symptoms in rats. We examined whether Systemic administrations of β-estradiol could alleviate PTSD-like symptoms that are induced by SPS model.In this study, electric foot shocks (two 4s, 1. mA with an interval of 30. s) were given to Adult ovariectomized rats 1. day after SPS procedures. Additionally, β-estradiol (45, 90, and 180. μg/kg) or sesame oil (vehicle) were injected immediately after foot shock and before Tests 2 and 3. After different incubation times, one (Test 1), two (Test 2), and three (Test 3) weeks later, the conditioned or sensitized fear responses were measured (Percent of freezing during test) by re-exposing the stressed rats to the shock chamber or a neutral tone in a novel environment. Three other groups were shock, control and sham groups. Ovariectomized rats of Shock group received shocks conducted through the procedure described below on. Animals in control (Ovariectomized rats) and Sham groups (Only submitted to surgery without removal of the ovaries), neither were exposed to the SPS procedure nor received an electrical shock. Also, these three groups were tested for fear responses three times.Findings indicated that rats who received electric shock the day after SPS exhibited both enhanced conditioned and sensitized fear responses in comparison to the control group. β-estradiol in 45. μg/kg dose could reduce both types of fear responses. β-estradiol exert an inhibitory influence on contextual fear conditioning (hippocampal-dependent) and on sensitized fear conditioning (amygdala-dependent). Single injection of this dose is enough for CFR alleviation but at least twice injections are necessary to reduce sensitized fear response. Overall our data demonstrate that multiple injections of β-estradiol, dose dependently, could alleviate both SPS induced conditioned and sensitized fear responses, as signs of PTSD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: β-Estradiol; Ovariectomized rats; Post-traumatic stress disorder; Single-prolonged stress
INDEX KEYWORDS: estradiol, amygdaloid nucleus; animal experiment; animal model; article; conditioning; controlled study; dose response; drug dosage form comparison; drug effect; electric shock; estrogen activity; experimental model; fear; female; hippocampus; nonhuman; posttraumatic stress disorder; rat; sensitization; single prolonged stress model, Animals; Arousal; Conditioning, Operant; Cues; Disease Models, Animal; Electroshock; Estradiol; Fear; Female; Hippocampus; Ovariectomy; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic; Stress, Psychological

Alijan-pour, J., Abrari, K., Bluki, T.L., Ghorbanian, M.T., Goudarzi, I., Salmani, M.E. Ethanol disrupts reactivated contextual conditioned fear memory: Behavioral and histological perspectives (2012) Cell Journal, 13 (4), pp. 265-274.

Objective: This research study is an attempt to examine whether the administration of ethanol after memory reactivation would modulate subsequent expression of memory in rats. Additionally, we examined whether this administration alters the density of Cornu Ammonis (CA)1 and CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, adult male Wistar rats (200-300 g) were trained in a fear conditioning system using two 1 second, 0.6 mA shocks with an interval of 180 seconds. Twenty four hours later rats were returned to the chamber for 120 seconds. Immediately after reactivation they were injected with ethanol (0.5, 1, 1.5 mg/kg) or saline. 1, 7 and 14 days after reactivation, rats were returned to the context for 5 minutes. Seconds of freezing (absence of all movement except respiration) were scored. In the second experiment (described in the previous paragraph), after test 1, animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and perfused transcardially with phosphate buffer (10 minutes) and 4% paraformaldehyde (15 minutes). The brains were postfixed in phosphate-buffered 4% paraformaldehyde (24 hours) and 30% sucrose. 10-μm sections were stained with cresyl violet. Data were analyzed by 1-and 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements by means of SPSS 16.0. Tukey's post hoc test was performed to determine the source of detected significant differences. P <0.05 were considered significant. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Results: Findings from the first experiment indicated that ethanol at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg significantly impaired recall of memory only in the first test. The density of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal and DG granule cells in the ethanol group was decreased (p< 0.01) compared with control group respectively 43.7%, 35.8%, and 37.8. Conclusion: The data demonstrate that ethanol exposure impairs post retrieval processes. Moreover, ethanol decreases the density of CA1, CA3 and DG cells. Presumably it would be a correlation between our behavioral and histological results.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Conditioning; Ethanol; Hippocampus; Reconsolidation
INDEX KEYWORDS: alcohol; paraformaldehyde; pentobarbital; phosphate buffered saline, analysis of variance; animal cell; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; behavior; clinical examination; conditioning; controlled study; dentate gyrus; experimental study; fear; granule cell; hippocampal CA1 region; hippocampal CA3 region; histology; male; medical research; memory; nonhuman; perfusion; rat

Mirshekar, M., Abrari, K., Goudarzi, I., Rashidy-Pour, A. Effects of β-estradiol on enhanced conditioned fear induced by single prolonged stress and shock in rats (2012) Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 3 (2), pp. 5-11.

Introduction: This study examined the effects of administration of subcutaneous β-estradiol on PTSD-like symptoms (the enhanced conditioned fear response, CFR) that induced by a single-prolonged stress (SPS) and shock in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to SPS procedure: restraint for 2 h, forced swim for 20 min, and ether anesthesia. Then the rats were placed in fear conditioning system and received 1 mA electric foot shock for 4 s. Following, stressed rats injected with β-estradiol (600 μxg/kg) or sesame oil. For CFR testing, 24 h later animals were re-exposed to the shock chamber for 3-min without further shock application. Percent of freezing was scored. Following testing, the animals were anesthetized and their brains were removed for histological examination (cell count) of the hippocampus that stained with cresyl violet. Results: Our results indicated that rats who received electric shock after the SPS exhibited the CFR. β-estradiol significantly reduced the CFR in the SPS rats as compared with control rats. No significant differences were found in cell count in different regions of the hippocampus between experimental groups. Discussion: Our findings indicated that β-estradiol administration after SPS prevents the enhanced CFR in an animal model of PTSD, suggesting a possible role for (3-estradiol in the prevention of PTSD.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: β-Estradiol; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; Rat; Single-Prolonged Stress
INDEX KEYWORDS: estradiol; sesame seed oil, adult animal; animal behavior; animal cell; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; conditioning; controlled study; dentate gyrus; drug effect; experimental rat; fear; footshock; hippocampal CA1 region; hippocampal CA3 region; histopathology; male; nonhuman; posttraumatic stress disorder; pyramidal nerve cell; rat; shock

Rahimi Shourmasti, F., Goudarzi, I., Lashkarbolouki, T., Abrari, K., Elahdadi Salmani, M., Goudarzi, A. Effects of riluzole on harmaline induced tremor and ataxia in rats: Biochemical, histological and behavioral studies (2012) European Journal of Pharmacology, 695 (1-3), pp. 40-47.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.08.014

Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common and most disabling movement disorders among adults. The drug treatment of essential tremor remains unsatisfactory. Additional therapies are required for patients with inadequate response or intolerable side effects. Thus, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of riluzole on harmaline-induced tremor and ataxia in rat, and determining whether riluzole exerts its effect through modulation of glutamate levels in cerebellum. The study included 5 groups of Wistar rats weighing 80-100 g, injected with harmaline (50 mg/kg i.p.) for inducing experimental tremors and ataxia. The rats in group 1 served as control (saline induced) and group 2 received harmaline alone, whereas the animals in groups 3, 4 and 5, were also given riluzole intraperitoneally at doses of 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg 10 min after harmaline administration, respectively. The intensity and duration of tremor were recorded. Rotarod test, distance traveled and number of crossings were used to evaluate motor performance. Results of this study demonstrated that riluzole dose dependently attenuated duration and intensity of harmaline-induced tremors. Also, riluzole significantly improves time to fall, distance traveled and number of crossings in combined riluzole and harmaline treated rats. Histological analysis indicated that harmaline could cause vermis Purkinje cell (PC) loss and riluzole prevented this toxic effect. Harmaline also could increase glutamate levels in vermis and treatment with riluzole restored glutamate levels. In conclusion, riluzole has relatively protective effects on harmaline-induced tremor, probably related to its inhibitory effect on glutamatergic neurotransmission. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: (Rat); Cerebellum; Harmaline; Riluzole; Tremor
INDEX KEYWORDS: riluzole, animal behavior; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; ataxia; cerebellum; controlled study; dose response; drug dose comparison; drug effect; histopathology; motor performance; neuromodulation; neuroprotection; neurotransmission; nonhuman; open field test; priority journal; Purkinje cell; rat; rotarod test; tremor, Animals; Ataxia; Behavior, Animal; Cerebellum; Glutamates; Harmaline; Ion Channels; Male; Neuroprotective Agents; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Riluzole; Rotarod Performance Test; Time Factors; Tremor

Alijan-Pour, J., Abrari, K., Bluki, T.L., Ghorbanian, M.T., Goudarzi, I., Salmani, M.E., Mirshekar, M. Acute ethanol administration affects memory reactivation: A look at the neuronal density and apoptosis in the rat hippocampus (2012) Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 102 (2), pp. 321-328.

DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.04.008

This study is an attempt to examine whether administration of ethanol after memory reactivation will modulate expression of memory in rats or not. We further examined whether this administration alters the number of tunnel positive cells in hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in a fear conditioning system using two 1 s , 0.6 mA shock with an interval of 180 s. 24 h later the rats were returned to the chamber for reactivation, and then they were injected with ethanol (0.5, 1, 1.5 mg/kg) or saline, ip. Again, one, seven and fourteen days after reactivation, the rats were returned to the context for 5 min. The freezing time (absence of all movements except respiration) was scored in seconds. In the second experiment, after test 1, the animals were anesthetized and a transcardial perfuse with phosphate buffer and paraformaldehyde 4% was conducted. After post-fixation of brains 5-μm sections were stained with cresyl violet. Finally, paraffin-embedded sections of 10 μm were cut out throughout the tissue and each sample was processed with TUNEL. The number of apoptotic cells in a 130 μm-long segment of the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 fields and dentate gyrus was counted. The data demonstrate that ethanol exposure impairs post retrieval processes. Rats receiving ethanol (1.5 mg/kg) showed lower freezing levels during the first test. Moreover, ethanol decreases the density of CA1, CA3 and DG cells and increases the density of apoptotic cells in all regions of hippocampus. Therefore, ethanol exposure impairs reconsolidation of contextual fear conditioning probably via decreasing the density of CA1, CA3 and DG cells. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Contextual fear conditioning; Ethanol; Hippocampus; Reconsolidation
INDEX KEYWORDS: alcohol; paraformaldehyde; phosphate buffered saline, acute drug administration; animal cell; animal experiment; animal tissue; apoptosis; article; cell density; controlled study; dentate gyrus; drug effect; freezing; hippocampal CA1 region; hippocampal CA3 region; hippocampus; male; memory; nerve cell; nick end labeling; nonhuman; priority journal; rat; tissue fixation; tissue section, Animals; Apoptosis; Behavior, Animal; Ethanol; Hippocampus; Male; Memory; Neurons; Rats; Rats, Wistar, Animalia; Rattus; Rattus norvegicus

Ramezani, A., Goudarzi, I., Lashkarboluki, T., Ghorbanian, M.T., Abrari, K., Salmani, M.E. Role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the developing cerebellum (2012) Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 15 (4), pp. 965-974.

Objective(s): The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in Purkinje cell neurotoxicity of ethanol-treated rat. Materials and Methods: Male rat pups 4-day-old was used in this study. Ethanol was administered to rat pups at a dose of 6 g/kg from postnatal days (PDs) 4 to 5. Pups were killed 90 min after the second alcohol treatment on PD 5 by decapitation and the brain was immediately removed. The cerebellum was dissected for analyzing the oxidative stress parameters and histological study. The activities of several antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in vermis of cerebellum were assayed. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were also measured as a marker of lipid peroxidation. Results: Administration of ethanol significantly increased TBARS levels in the cerebellum compared to control pups (P< 0.01). The treated pups with ethanol exhibited a marked decrease in the GPx activity (P< 0.01) whereas, in spite of decrease in the activities of SOD and CAT, when compared to control, there were not significant differences. The spherical cell bodies of Purkinje cells in control rats are aligned nicely between the granular and molecular layers. In ethanol treated pups, Purkinje cells scattered within the Purkinje cell layer and shrinkage of the cell somata is seen. Conclusion: The results of the present work demonstrated that ethanol exposure during the vulnerable window could increase TBARS levels (lipid peroxidation) and decrease GPx levels in pup's cerebellum. Also, the results confirmed ethanol-induced microencephaly, cerebellar Purkinje cell loss. These findings suggest that Purkinje cell loss is, in part through decrease in the activity of GPx and increase of lipid peroxidation in the rat cerebellum.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Cerebellum; Ethanol; Oxidative stress; Purkinje cell; Rat
INDEX KEYWORDS: alcohol; catalase; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase; thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; antioxidant activity; article; brain development; cerebellum vermis; controlled study; enzyme activity; histopathology; lipid peroxidation; male; microcephaly; neurotoxicity; newborn; nonhuman; oxidative stress; Purkinje cell; rat, Rattus

Ramezani, A., Goudarzi, I., Lashkarbolouki, T., Ghorbanian, M.T., Elahdadi Salmani, M., Abrari, K. Neuroprotective effects of the 17β-estradiol against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in the developing male rat cerebellum: Biochemical, histological and behavioral changes (2011) Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 100 (1), pp. 144-151.

DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2011.07.010

During particular periods of central nervous system (CNS) development, exposure to ethanol can decrease regional brain growth and can result in selective loss of neurons. Unfortunately, there are few effective means of attenuating damage in the immature brain. In this study, the possible antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of 17β-estradiol against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity was investigated. 17β-estradiol (600 μg/kg) was injected subcutaneously in postnatal day (PD) 4 and 5, 30 min prior to intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (6 g/kg) in rat pups. Ninety minutes after injection of ethanol, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) in vermis of cerebellum were assayed. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were also measured as a marker of lipid peroxidation. Behavioral studies, including rotarod and locomotor activity tests were performed in PD 21-23 and histological study was performed after completion of behavioral measurements in postnatal day 23. The results of the present work demonstrated that ethanol could induce lipid peroxidation, increase TBARS levels and decrease glutathione peroxidase levels in pup cerebellum. We also observed that ethanol impaired performance on the rotarod and locomotor activities of rat pups. However, treatment with 17β-estradiol significantly attenuated motoric impairment, the lipid peroxidation process and restored the levels of antioxidants. Histological analysis also indicated that ethanol could decrease vermis Purkinje cell count and 17β-estradiol prevented this toxic effect. These results suggest that ethanol may induce lipid peroxidation in the rat pups cerebellum while treatment with 17β-estradiol improves motor deficits by protecting the cerebellum against ethanol toxicity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: 17β-estradiol; Ethanol; Lipid peroxidation; Oxidative stress; Purkinje cell; Rat pups
INDEX KEYWORDS: alcohol; catalase; estradiol; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase; thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, animal experiment; antioxidant activity; article; behavior change; biochemistry; brain development; cerebellum; cerebellum vermis; controlled study; female; histology; locomotion; male; neuroprotection; neurotoxicity; nonhuman; oxidative stress; perinatal period; priority journal; Purkinje cell; rat; rotarod test; task performance, Animals; Animals, Newborn; Cerebellum; Estradiol; Ethanol; Male; Motor Activity; Motor Skills Disorders; Neuroprotective Agents; Oxidative Stress; Rats; Rats, Wistar, Rattus

Kashani, M.H.G., Tiraihi, T., Ghorbanian, M.T., Abrari, K. In vitro expression of BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT3 and NT4/5 genes in selegiline induced bone marrow stromal cells (2010) Yakhteh, 11 (4), pp. 400-407.

Objective: Two types of stem cells are found in the bone marrow: hematopoietic stem cells and marrow stromal cells (MSCs). Is it possible to induce the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into neural cells in vitro and subsequently transplant them into the brain? This might help repair neural lesions observed in some neurodegenerative diso ders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Materials and Methods: In this study, cultured MSCs were incubated in serum free medium containing 10-8 M selegiline for 24 hours and cells were cultured for another 48 hours in áminimal essential medium (α-MEM) containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Then selegiline-treated cells were immunostained for neuronal markers such as NF-200 and TH. Results: Cell counting results showed that Selegiline at doses of 10-8, 10-7 and 10-8 M increased the mean percent of viable cells. The most effective dose of Selegiline for diferentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was 10-8 M. Molecular studies indcated that the expression of BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT3, and NT4/5 genes were increased in Selegiline-treated cells compared to non-treated group. Conclusion: BMSCs can be directed to a neural fate in vitro and can be considered as a cell source in neurological disorders for autograft therapy.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Bone marrow stromal cells; Neurotrophic factors; Selegiline
INDEX KEYWORDS: azacitidine; brain derived neurotrophic factor; cell marker; epidermal growth factor; glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor; glial fibrillary acidic protein; microtubule associated protein 1; nerve growth factor; neuron specific nuclear protein; neurotrophin 3; neurotrophin 4; selegiline; selenium; transferrin; vimentin, article; autograft; bone marrow cell; cell count; cell culture; cell differentiation; cell fate; cell transdifferentiation; cell viability; colony forming unit; controlled study; culture medium; dose response; gene expression; immunohistochemistry; in vitro study; incubation time; mesenchymal stem cell; molecular mechanics; nerve cell lesion; nerve cell plasticity; neurofilament; neurologic disease; nonhuman; stroma cell

Goudarzi, I., Hajizadeh, S., Salmani, M.E., Abrari, K. Pulsed electromagnetic fields accelerate wound healing in the skin of diabetic rats (2010) Bioelectromagnetics, 31 (4), pp. 318-323.

DOI: 10.1002/bem.20567

Delayed wound healing is a common complication in diabetes mellitus. From this point of view, the main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF PEMFs) on skin wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats via a single subcutaneous injection of 65 mg/kg streptozocin (freshly dissolved in sterile saline, 0.9%). One month after the induction of diabetes, a full-thickness dermal incision (35 mm length) was made on the right side of the paravertebral region. The wound was exposed to ELF PEMF (20 Hz, 4 ms, 8 mT) for 1 h per day. Wound healing was evaluated by measuring surface area, percentage of healing, duration of healing, and wound tensile strength. Obtained results showed that the duration of wound healing in diabetic rats in comparison with the control group was significantly increased. In contrast, the rate of healing in diabetic rats receiving PEMF was significantly greater than in the diabetic control group. The wound tensile strength also was significantly greater than the control animals. In addition, the duration of wound healing in the control group receiving PEMF was less than the sham group. Based on the above-mentioned results we concluded that this study provides some evidence to support the use of ELF PEMFs to accelerate diabetic wound healing. Further research is needed to determine the PEMF mechanisms in acceleration of wound healing in diabetic rats. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Diabetes; Pulsed electromagnetic field; Rat; Streptozocin; Wound healing
INDEX KEYWORDS: Animalia; Rattus; Rattus norvegicus, streptozocin, animal; article; electromagnetic field; experimental diabetes mellitus; injury; male; pathophysiology; radiation exposure; rat; skin; tensile strength; Wistar rat; wound healing, Animals; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental; Electromagnetic Fields; Male; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Skin; Streptozocin; Tensile Strength; Wound Healing

Abrari, K., Rashidy-Pour, A., Semnanian, S., Fathollahi, Y., Jadid, M. Corrigendum to "Post-training administration of corticosterone enhances consolidation of contextual fear memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in rats" [Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 91 (2009) 260-265] (DOI:10.1016/j.nlm.2008.10.008) (2009) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 92 (3), p. 468.

DOI: 10.1016/j.nlm.2009.06.011
INDEX KEYWORDS: erratum; error

Abrari, K., Rashidy-Pour, A., Semnanian, S., Fathollahi, Y. Post-training administration of corticosterone enhances consolidation of contextual fear memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in rats (2009) Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 91 (3), pp. 260-265.

DOI: 10.1016/j.nlm.2008.10.008

This study was designed to examine the effect of corticosterone on consolidation of contextual fear memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in rats. In Experiment 1, dose-response effects of corticosterone on consolidation of contextual fear memory were determined. Immediately after training in contextual fear conditioning task, rats received different doses of corticosterone. Testing 24 h later, it revealed that corticosterone enhanced memory consolidation in an inverted U shape as evidenced in increased freezing behavior of corticosterone-treated animals. The most effective dose was 3 mg/kg. In Experiment 2, LTP was examined in rats whose memory consolidation has been enhanced with corticosterone. The rats were trained as the above and received corticosterone (3 mg/kg) immediately after training. Immediately or up to one day after retention test, rats were anesthetized with urethane for LTP experiments. For LTP induction, three episodes of high frequency stimuli, 30 s apart, were delivered to the perforant path, each consisting of 10 stimuli at 250 Hz. LTP was assessed by measuring the increase in the initial slope of the population excitatory post-synaptic potentials and the amplitude of the population spikes. Data indicated that animals whose memory has been enhanced by corticosterone, also displayed enhanced hippocampal LTP. The above findings suggest that glucocorticoids may enhance contextual fear memory consolidation via enhancing hippocampal LTP. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Consolidation; Contextual fear conditioning; Glucocorticoids; Hippocampus; Learning; Long-term potentiation; Memory
INDEX KEYWORDS: corticosterone, animal experiment; article; conditioning; controlled study; excitatory postsynaptic potential; fear; hippocampus; hormone action; long term potentiation; male; memory consolidation; nonhuman; rat, Analysis of Variance; Animals; Corticosterone; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Electric Stimulation; Electrodes, Implanted; Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials; Fear; Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic; Hippocampus; Long-Term Potentiation; Male; Memory; Psychotropic Drugs; Random Allocation; Rats

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