Houshang Khairy

Vice President for Research and Technology


  • Ph.D. 2010-2013


    University of Mysore, Mysore, India

  • M.Sc. 1999


    Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

  • B.Sc. 1993


    Shahid Beheshti University, Tehrān, Iran


  • Principals of Hydrology
  • Applied hydrology
  • Ground water hydrology
  • Hydrogeology
  • Principles of geophysical exploration
  • Iran water resources

Selected Publications

Khairy, H., Janardhana, M.R. Hydrogeochemistry and quality of groundwater of coastal unconfined aquifer in Amol-Ghaemshahr plain, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran (2014) Environmental Earth Sciences, 71 (11), pp. 4767-4782.

DOI: 10.1007/s12665-013-2868-z

Groundwater of the unconfined aquifer (1,100 sq. km) of a two-tier coastal aquifer located in the Amol-Ghaemshahr plain, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran, is classified into fresh and brackish water types. Fresh groundwater (FGW) samples (n = 36) are characterized by Ca2+> Na+> Mg2+> K+ and HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 -. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient matrices, factor analysis data, values of the C-ratio (av. = 0.89) and CAI and values of the molar ratios of Ca2+/HCO3 -, Ca2+/SO4 2-, Mg2+/HCO3 - and Mg2+/SO4 2- indicate that the ionic load in the FGW is derived essentially from carbonic acid-aided weathering of carbonates and aluminosilicates, saline/sea water trapped in the aquifer sediments (now admixed with the groundwater) and ion exchange reactions. Values of the CAI and Na+/Cl- molar ratio suggest that the part of the Ca2+ (±Mg2+) content in 23 FGW samples is derived from clay minerals of the aquifer matrix, and part of the Na+ content in 20, 12, and 3 FGW samples is derived, respectively, from alkali feldspar weathering, clay minerals of the aquifer matrix and rain water and/or halite. Brackish groundwater (BGW) samples (n = 4) contain Cl- as the dominant anion and their average total ionic concentration (38.65 meq/L) is 1.79 times higher than that of the FGW samples (21.50 meq/L). BGW pockets were generated by non-conservative mixing of FGW with the upconed saline water from the underlying saline groundwater zone of the semi-confined aquifer along bore wells involved in excessive extraction of groundwater from the unconfined aquifer. Groundwater belongs essentially to "high salinity, low sodium" irrigation water class. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Coastal unconfined aquifer; Groundwater types; Hydrogeochemistry; Mazandaran Province; Northern Iran; Sources of solutes
INDEX KEYWORDS: Aquifers; Calcium; Carbon dioxide; Clay minerals; Groundwater geochemistry; Hydrochemistry; Irrigation; Sodium; Weathering, Brackish ground water; Coastal unconfined aquifers; Hydro geochemistries; Ion exchange reactions; Ionic concentrations; Mazandaran provinces; Northern Iran; Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, Groundwater resources, chemical composition; chemical weathering; clay mineral; coastal aquifer; groundwater abstraction; hydrogeochemistry; ion exchange; mixing; saline intrusion; salinity; sodium; solute transport; unconfined aquifer; water quality, Amol; Iran; Mazandaran; Qaem Shahr
PUBLISHER: Springer Verlag