INDEX KEYWORDS: Ammonia; Ammonium persulfate; Electron microscopy; Enamels; Energy gap; Ethylene; Ethylene glycol; Field emission microscopes; High resolution transmission electron microscopy; Molybdenum compounds; Molybdenum oxide; Nanoparticles; Scanning electron microscopy; Sols; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis, Annealing temperatures; Chalcogenide semiconductors; Field emission scanning electron microscopy; Hexagonal structures; Molybdenum disulfide; Molybdenum sulfide; Porous nanoparticles; Synthesis and characterizations, Synthesis (chemical) PUBLISHER: Springer New York LLC
INDEX KEYWORDS: Annealing; Electron microscopy; Enamels; Energy gap; Field emission microscopes; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; High resolution transmission electron microscopy; Layered semiconductors; Molybdenum; Molybdenum compounds; Nanoparticles; Nanostructures; Scanning electron microscopy; Sulfur; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis, Annealing temperatures; Chalcogenide semiconductors; Characteristic bands; Chemical reduction methods; Field emission scanning electron microscopy; Hexagonal structures; Homogeneous distribution; Molybdenum disulfide, Molybdenum oxide PUBLISHER: Springer Verlag
INDEX KEYWORDS: Electron microscopy; Energy gap; Film preparation; Graphene; High resolution transmission electron microscopy; Optical films; Optical properties; Oxide films; Pyrolysis; Scanning electron microscopy; Semiconductor doping; Spray pyrolysis; Tin oxides; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction, Chemical reduction methods; Electrical and optical properties; Graphene composites; Hydrazine hydrate; Indium Tin Oxide films; Scanning electrons; Spray pyrolysis method; Systematic study, Composite films PUBLISHER: Springer New York LLC
AUTHOR KEYWORDS: DC Magnetometry; Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors; Ferromagnetism in Semiconductor; Sol-Gel Process; X-ray Diffraction INDEX KEYWORDS: Annealing condition; Annealing temperatures; Average grain size; Cluster sizes; Co-doped; DC Magnetometry; Diluted magnetic semiconductors; Metallic phase; Paramagnetic behavior; Structural and magnetic properties; TiO; TiO2 nano-particles, Annealing; Cobalt compounds; Magnetic properties; Magnetic semiconductors; Magnetometers; Nanoparticles; Paramagnetism; Synthesis (chemical); Titanium dioxide; X ray diffraction, Sol-gel process
In this paper, the SnO 2-Al 2O 3 binary thin-film system has been deposited on a glass substrate by the spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of aluminum concentration on the structural, electrical, thermoelectrical, optical and photoconductivity properties of films was studied. The [Al]/[Sn] atomic ratio was in the range 0-100 at.% in solution. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all films with different doping levels have polycrystalline SnO 2 cassiterite phase. At doping levels of 40 at.% and above, the Al 2O 3 phase was observed and the sheet resistance of the films increased with increasing Al doping in the ranges from 5 at.% to less than 40 at.% and more than 60 at.% due to the substitution of Al 3+ with Sn 4+. Minimum sheet resistance of films was found in the range 40-60 at.%. Using Hall effect measurements, the majority carriers concentration obtained was of the order of 10 18 cm -3. Hall effect and thermoelectrical measurements show that at doping levels between 10 and 20% and also higher than 60 at.%, majority carriers change from electrons (n-type conduction) to holes (p-type conduction). Also, a higher Seebeck coefficient value equal to -341 μV K -1 was obtained for the 30 at.% Al-doping level. The average transmittance of the films at low doping levels was about 75-90%. The photoconductivity properties of SnO 2-Al 2O 3 thin films increased with increasing doping level.
INDEX KEYWORDS: Al-doping; Aluminum concentration; Atomic ratio; Doping levels; Glass substrates; Hall effect measurement; Majority carriers; N-type conduction; P-Type conduction; Polycrystalline; Spray pyrolysis method; Spray-pyrolysis techniques; Transparent conducting films, Aluminum; Conductive films; Electric properties; Hall effect; Photoconductivity; Sheet resistance; Spray pyrolysis; Substrates; Tin; X ray diffraction analysis, Semiconductor doping
INDEX KEYWORDS: Annealing temperatures; Burstein-Moss effects; Crystallinities; Cubic phase; Direct band gap; Energy bandgaps; Hydroalcoholic solution; Indium tin oxide; Micro-structural; Nano powders; Nanocrystallines; Optical absorption measurement; Post-annealing temperature; Sol-gel methods; TEM; TEM images; Temperature range; XRD patterns, Annealing; Carrier concentration; Citric acid; Crystalline materials; Energy gap; Ethylene; Ethylene glycol; Indium; Indium compounds; Nanoparticles; Powders; Tin; Tin oxides; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction; X ray powder diffraction, Optical properties
In this paper, we investigate the electrical, optical and structural properties of Li-doped SnO2 transparent conducting films deposited on glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique. The SnO2:Li thin films were deposited at a substrate temperature of 480°C using an aqueous ethanol solution consisting of tin and lithium chloride with various doping levels from 0 to 25 wt% in solution. The effect of increasing Li concentration on the electrical, optical and structural properties of SnO2 films has been studied. The results of x-ray diffraction have shown that the deposited films are polycrystalline without any second phases with preferential orientations along the (110) and (211) planes and an average grain size of 28.7 nm. Also, the Hall effect and resistivity measurements of the films show that for a specific acceptor dopant concentration of ∼2 wt% or [Li]/[Sn] atomic ratio equal to 37 at% in solution, the majority of carriers convert from electrons to holes and for a Li concentration of ∼15 wt% in solution, p-conductivity increases sharply. The optical absorption edge for undoped SnO2 films lies at 4.11 eV, whereas for high acceptor doped films it shifts towards lower energies (longer wavelengths) in the range of 4.11 to 3.61 eV.
INDEX KEYWORDS: Electric properties; Glass; Hall effect; Heterojunctions; Light absorption; Light emitting diodes; Lithium; Pyrolysis; Semiconductor doping; Thin films; X ray diffraction analysis, Conducting films; Spray pyrolysis; Transparent electronics, Tin compounds
In this study, the influence of increasing the Al concentration on the electrical, optical and structural properties of spray-pyrolysis-deposited SnO2 films has been investigated. The SnO2 : Al films were deposited at a substrate temperature of 480°C using a hydro-alcoholic solution consisting of tin and aluminium chlorides with various Al-doping levels from 0 to 30 wt% in solution. The [Al]/[Sn] atomic ratios were from 0 to 12.1 in films. The results of x-ray diffraction have shown that the deposited films are polycrystalline without any second phases with preferential orientations along the (110), (211) and (301) planes and an average grain size of 28.7 nm. Also, the Hall effect and resistivity measurements of the films show that for a specific acceptor dopant (Al) concentration (8.0 at% in film), majority carriers convert from electrons to holes and p-conductivity dominates. The optical absorption edge for undoped SnO2 films lies at 4.105 eV, whereas for high acceptor-doped films it shifts towards lower energies (longer wavelengths) in the range of 4.105-3.604 eV.
INDEX KEYWORDS: Aluminum compounds; Chemical sensors; Doping (additives); Electric conductivity; Electromagnetic shielding; Energy gap; Flat panel displays; Hall effect; Light absorption; Opacity; Optoelectronic devices; Pyrolysis; Substrates; Thermodynamic stability; Thin films; X ray diffraction, Optical transparency; Spray pyrolysis; Transparent conducting films; Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), Tin compounds
AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Spray pyrolysis; Tin oxide; Transparent conducting oxide films; Zinc oxide INDEX KEYWORDS: Composition; Electric conductivity; Hall effect; Pyrolysis; Scanning electron microscopy; Solutions; Tin compounds; Zinc oxide, Spray pyrolysis, Thin films
In this paper, deposition and electrical, optical and structural characterizations of the In2O3:Zn transparent conducting thin films are investigated. At first, undoped and non-stoichiometric n-In2O3 thin films are deposited using an alcoholic solution by spray pyrolysis technique. Then, in order to prepare Zn-doped In2O3 thin films, certain amounts of zinc chloride are added to the initial solution. Finally, the effects of Zn doping on electrical, optical and structural properties of In2O3 films are studied. The results of XRD analysis, Hall effect experiment and resistivity measurement of films indicate that no phase change in In2O3 lattice occurs in high acceptor doping condition, and for a given acceptor dopant (Zn2+) concentration (∼6wt% in solution), electrical conductivity increases sharply and p-conductivity dominates.
INDEX KEYWORDS: Crystal lattices; Electric conductivity; Pyrolysis; Semiconducting indium compounds; Semiconductor doping; Transparency; X ray diffraction; Zinc, Dopants, Thin films
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