Arezou Rezaei

Assistant Professor of Biochemistry


  • Biochemistry
  • Advanced Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry of Lipid & Carbohydrates

Selected Publications

Nakhaeifard, M., Kashani, M.H.G., Goudarzi, I., Rezaei, A. Conditioned medium protects dopaminergic neurons in Parkinsonian rats (2018) Cell Journal, 20 (3), pp. 348-354.

DOI: 10.22074/cellj.2018.5343

Objective: Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) secrete numerous neurotrophic factors and cytokines in conditioned medium (CM), which protect neurons by its antioxidative and trophic effects. This research assesses the neuroprotective effect of ASCCM on neurotrophins genes expressions and tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH+) cell density in Male Wistar rats lesioned by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the groups consisted of lesioned and sham rats with unilateral injections of 20 μg of 6-OHDA neurotoxin and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) into the striatum, respectively. Another groups received intravenous injections of 3×106 cells (ASCs group), 500 μl of CM (ASC-CM group) or medium [α-minimal essential medium (α-MEM) group)]. All rats underwent evaluations with the rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks post-injection. At 8 weeks we sacrificed some of the animals for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and evaluation of TH+ cell counts. Results: We observed a significant decrease in contralateral turns to the lesions in the ASCs and ASC-CM groups compared to the neurotoxin lesioned or α-MEM groups at 8 weeks post transplantation. Cell and CM- injected rats showed a significant increase of staying on the rotarod compared to the lesion or α-MEM groups. Cell and CM-treated rats showed significant increases in the NGF and NT3 genes, respectively, compared with the lesion group. Both treated groups showed significant increases in BDNF gene expression and TH+ cell density. Conclusion: The results suggested that ASCs and ASC-CM protected dopaminergic neurons through the expressions of neurotrophin genes. © 2018 Royan Institute (ACECR). All rights reserved.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Conditioned Medium; Dopaminergic Neurons; Parkinson's Disease
INDEX KEYWORDS: brain derived neurotrophic factor; neurotrophin; tyrosine 3 monooxygenase, adipose derived stem cell; adult; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; Article; BDNF gene; cell density; cell protection; circling behavior; clinical effectiveness; controlled study; dopaminergic nerve cell; gene; gene expression; male; motor coordination; neuroprotection; NGF gene; nonhuman; NT3 gene; outcome assessment; parkinsonism; rat; real time polymerase chain reaction; rotarod test; stem cell transplantation; substantia nigra
PUBLISHER: Royan Institute (ACECR)

Bagherpour Zarchi, M., Divsalar, A., Abrari, K., Rezaei, A. Multiple spectroscopic studies of the interaction between a quaternary ammonium-based cationic Gemini surfactant (as a carrier) and human erythropoietin (2017) Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, pp. 1-8. Article in Press.

DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2017.1391123

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hematopoietic growth factor. This substance, as a strong cell protector, can increase cell maintenance during different damages of central nervous system. Since the brain-blood barrier prevents the entrance of large proteins similar to EPO into the brain, its systemic delivery gets limited. The aim of this study was to find an alternative approach for EPO delivery into the brain to skip the blood-brain barrier prevention. So, a new quaternary ammonium-based cationic Gemini surfactant has been used to study the interaction of the cationic Gemini surfactant (as a carrier) with EPO using various spectroscopic techniques of (fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD)) and thermal denaturation. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies show the formation of Gemini-EPO complex and also static quenching of protein upon this interaction. The binding parameters of number of binding sites, binding affinity, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated according to fluorescence quenching studies. Also, CD results have further represented that the content of regular secondary structure of EPO did not show any significant alterations by increasing the Gemini concentration. Finally, thermal denaturation behavior of EPO results indicates decreasing the thermal stability of protein in the presence of Gemini. In conclusion, the obtained results proposed that Gemini as a cationic surfactant can bind to EPO without any significant diverse effects on the structure of this drug (EPO) which can be considered as a candidate for EPO delivery in future. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: blood-brain barrier; erythropoietin; fluorescence spectroscopy; Gemini; thermal denaturation
PUBLISHER: Taylor and Francis Ltd.

Rezaei, A., Farzadfard, A., Amirahmadi, A., Alemi, M., Khademi, M. Diabetes mellitus and its management with medicinal plants: A perspective based on Iranian research (2015) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 175, pp. 567-616.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.010

Ethnopharmacological relevance Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly used to treat chronic illnesses, such as diabetes mellitus. However, various limitations in terms of their application and efficacies exist. Furthermore, there is still much to be done to discover the right herbal medicine for diabetes. Aim of the study This paper aims to evaluate previous herbal studies on the management of diabetes mellitus, to address their strengths and weaknesses and propose a general framework for future studies. Approach and methods Data sources such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLink, and Wiley were searched, limited to Iran, using 36 search terms such as herbal, traditional, medicine, and phytopharmacy in combination with diabetes and related complications. Reviewed articles were evaluated regarding the use of botanical nomenclature and included information on (1) identity of plants and plant parts used, (2) the processing procedure, and (3) the extraction process. The main outcomes were extracted and then surveyed in terms of the efficacies of herbs in the management of diabetes mellitus. Then a comparative study was performed between Iranian and non-Iranian studies with respect to herbs best studied in Iran. Results Of the 82 herbs studied in Iran, only six herbs were endemic and 19 were studied in detail. Although most of the reviewed herbs were found to decrease the level of blood glucose (BG) and/or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) in both Iranian and non-Iranian studies, information on their pharmacological mechanisms is scarce. However, the level of HbA1C was measured in a limited number of clinical trials or animal studies. Available information on both short- and long-term use of studied herbs on diabetes related complications and functions of involved organs as well as comorbid depression and/or simultaneous changes in lifesyle is also insufficient. Furthermore, little or no information on their phytochemical, toxicological, and herb-drug interaction properties is available. It is worth noting that the efficacy of the reviewed herbs has been studied scarcely in both humans and animals regarding both Iranian and non-Iranian studies. A significant number of reviewed articles failed to cite the scientific name of herbs and include information on the processing procedure and the extraction process. Conclusions Treatment of diabetes mellitus as a multifactorial disease using herbal medicines requires a comprehensive approach. In order to discover the right herbal medicine for the management of diabetes many other important factors than the levels of BG, HbA1C and insulin should be considered. According to our criteria, all the reviewed herbs suffered from inadequate investigation in human, animal and in vitro models in this respect, whereas they are worth investigating further. However, more research on endemic plants and the traditional history of herbal medicine is warranted. In our opinion, the pharmacological, toxicological, and phytochemical information should be obtained before clinical trials. Furthermore, information such as botanical scientific nomenclature, side effects, and toxicity will improve the quality and validity of publications in herbal research. In particular, designing a database covering all valid information about herbs and/or diseases will decrease unnecessary costs and increase the efficiency of research. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Diabetes; Evaluation; Herbal medicines; Iran; Researches
INDEX KEYWORDS: glucose; glycosylated hemoglobin; hemoglobin A1c; plant extract; plant medicinal product; antidiabetic agent, clinical evaluation; clinical trial (topic); comparative study; depression; diabetes mellitus; diabetic nephropathy; diabetic neuropathy; diabetic retinopathy; drug identification; drug mechanism; drug safety; glucose blood level; herb drug interaction; herbal medicine; human; hypercholesterolemia; hypertriglyceridemia; Iranian people; managed care; medicinal plant; Medline; metabolic disorder; nonhuman; obesity; outcome assessment; randomized controlled trial (topic); Review; ScienceDirect; Scopus; SpringerLink; treatment outcome; animal; diabetes mellitus; Iran; medical research; phytotherapy, Animals; Biomedical Research; Diabetes Mellitus; Humans; Hypoglycemic Agents; Iran; Phytotherapy; Plants, Medicinal
PUBLISHER: Elsevier Ireland Ltd

Alizadeh, A.M., Sadeghizadeh, M., Najafi, F., Ardestani, S.K., Erfani-Moghadam, V., Khaniki, M., Rezaei, A., Zamani, M., Khodayari, S., Khodayari, H., Mohagheghi, M.A. Encapsulation of curcumin in diblock copolymer micelles for cancer therapy (2015) BioMed Research International, 2015, art. no. 824746, .

DOI: 10.1155/2015/824746

Application of nanoparticles has recently promising results for water insoluble agents like curcumin. In this study, we synthesized polymeric nanoparticle-curcumin (PNPC) and then showed its efficiency, drug loading, stability, and safety. Therapeutic effects of PNPC were also assessed on two cell lines and in an animal model of breast cancer. PNPC remarkably suppressed mammary and hepatocellular carcinoma cells proliferation (P < 0.05). Under the dosing procedure, PNPC was safe at 31.25 mg/kg and lower doses. Higher doses demonstrated minimal hepatocellular and renal toxicity in paraclinical and histopathological examinations. Tumor take rate in PNPC-treated group was 37.5% compared with 87.5% in control (P < 0.05). Average tumor size and weight were significantly lower in PNPC group than control (P < 0.05). PNPC increased proapoptotic Bax protein expression (P < 0.05). Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression, however, was lower in PNPC-treated animals than the control ones (P < 0.05). In addition, proliferative and angiogenic parameters were statistically decreased in PNPC-treated animals (P < 0.05). These results highlight the suppressing role for PNPC in in vitro and in vivo tumor growth models. Our findings provide credible evidence for superior biocompatibility of the polymeric nanocarrier in pharmacological arena together with an excellent tumor-suppressing response. © 2015 Ali Mohammad Alizadeh et al. [/accordion]
INDEX KEYWORDS: curcumin; cyclophosphamide; doxorubicin; nanocarrier; protein Bax; protein bcl 2; antineoplastic agent; curcumin; drug carrier; micelle; nanoparticle; polymer, animal experiment; animal tissue; antineoplastic activity; Article; ascites; atomic force microscopy; biocompatibility; breast cancer; cancer cell culture; cancer therapy; controlled study; critical micelle concentration; diarrhea; female; histopathology; human; immunohistochemistry; in vitro study; in vivo study; liver cell carcinoma; micelle; mouse; nanoencapsulation; nephrotoxicity; nonhuman; particle size; protein expression; tumor volume; weight reduction; zeta potential; animal; apoptosis; Bagg albino mouse; Breast Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; cell line; cell proliferation; drug effects; drug stability; Liver Neoplasms; micelle; tumor cell line, Animalia, Animals; Antineoplastic Agents; Apoptosis; Breast Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Cell Line; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation; Curcumin; Drug Carriers; Drug Stability; Female; Humans; Liver Neoplasms; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Micelles; Nanoparticles; Polymers
PUBLISHER: Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Firozan, B., Goudarzi, I., Elahdadi Salmani, M., Lashkarbolouki, T., Rezaei, A., Abrari, K. Estradiol increases expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor after acute administration of ethanol in the neonatal rat cerebellum (2014) European Journal of Pharmacology, 732 (1), pp. 1-11.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.02.041

Recently it has been shown that estradiol prevents the toxicity of ethanol in developing cerebellum. The neuroprotective effect of estradiol is not due to a single phenomenon but rather encompasses a spectrum of independent proccesses. According to the specific timing of Purkinje cell vulnerability to ethanol and several protective mechanisms of estradiol, we considered the neurotrophin system, as a regulator of differentiation, maturation and survival of neurons during CNS development. Interactions between estrogen and Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, an essential factor in neuronal survival) lead us to investigate involvement of BDNF pathway in neuroprotective effects of estrogen against ethanol toxicity. In this study, 17β-estradiol (300-900 μg/kg) was injected subcutaneously in postnatal day (PD) 4, 30 min prior to intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (6 g/kg) in rat pups. Eight hours after injection of ethanol, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were assayed. Behavioral studies, including rotarod and locomotor activity tests were performed in PD 21-23 and histological study was performed after completion of behavioral tests in PD 23. Our results indicated that estradiol increased BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the presence of ethanol. We also observed that pretreatment with estradiol significantly attenuated ethanol-induced motoric impairment. Histological analysis also demonstrated that estradiol prevented Purkinje cell loss following ethanol treatment. These results provide evidence on the possible mechanisms of estradiol neuroprotection against ethanol toxicity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: 17β-estradiol; Brain derived neurotrophic factor; Ethanol; Neuroprotection; Purkinje cell
INDEX KEYWORDS: alcohol; brain derived neurotrophic factor; complementary DNA; estradiol; messenger RNA; alcohol; brain derived neurotrophic factor; central depressant agent; estradiol; neuroprotective agent, alcohol blood level; animal behavior; animal tissue; article; cell loss; cerebellum; controlled study; DNA synthesis; drug mechanism; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; experimental locomotor activity test; female; histology; male; motor dysfunction; neuroprotection; newborn; nonhuman; open field test; perinatal period; priority journal; protein expression; Purkinje cell; rat; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; RNA extraction; rotarod test; animal; blood; cerebellum; drug effects; metabolism; motor activity; pathology; psychomotor performance; signal transduction, Animals; Animals, Newborn; Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; Central Nervous System Depressants; Cerebellum; Estradiol; Ethanol; Motor Activity; Neuroprotective Agents; Psychomotor Performance; Rats; Signal Transduction

Nikoozad, Z., Ghorbanian, M.T., Rezaei, A. Comparison of the liver function and hepatic specific genes expression in cultured mesenchymal stem cells and hepatocytes (2014) Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 17 (1), pp. 27-33.

Objective(s): Stem cell therapy is believed to be as a promising treatment strategy for tissue repair and regeneration. The plasticity specification of the adult stem cells, such as MSCs, has enabled that these cells to be used in the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases like liver disorders. In this study, the production of urea and Albumin (Alb), glycogen storage, and expression of some liver genes including α-fetoprotein (AFP), Alb, cytokeratin18 (CK18) and cytokeratin19 (CK19) was compared between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and isolated rat hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The MSCs were isolated from rat femurs and tibias and cultured in α-MEM, DMEM and RPMI mediums supplemented with serum. Hepatocytes were isolated from Rat livers and cultured in DMEM with serum. The expression of AFP, Alb, CK18, and CK19 genes was evaluated using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, the synthesis of albumin and urea of the cells was measured. Results: In vitro conditions, MSCs and hepatocytes exhibited the characteristic functions of the liver such as capacity to synthesize Alb, urea, the storage of glycogen. In this study, the expression of some liver genes such as AFP, Alb, CK18 and CK19 at mRNA levels was also shown. Conclusion: The results showed that MSCs exhibited some liver functions, and may be considered as an alternative source for adult stem cell transplantation in liver repair due to the excellent proliferation and differentiation capacities.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Albumin; Glycogen; Hepatocytes; Liver genes; Mesenchymal stem cells
INDEX KEYWORDS: albumin; alpha fetoprotein; cytokeratin 18; cytokeratin 19; glycogen, animal tissue; article; cell density; chemical analysis; controlled study; electrophoresis; gene expression; immunocytochemistry; liver cell; liver function; male; mesenchymal stem cell; MTT assay; nonhuman; rat; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

Salehi, M., Kubicki, M., Dutkiewicz, G., Rezaei, A., Behzad, M., Etminani, S. Synthesis, characterization, electrochemical studies, and antibacterial activities of cobalt(III) complexes with Salpn-Tipe Schiff base ligands. Crystal structure of trans-[CoIII(L1)(Py)2]ClO 4 (2013) Russian Journal of Coordination Chemistry/Koordinatsionnaya Khimiya, 39 (10), pp. 716-722.

DOI: 10.1134/S1070328413100084

The synthesis, characterization, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of trans-[CoIII(L1)(Py)2]ClO 4 (I) and trans-[CoIII(L2)(Py) 2]ClO4 (II) complexes, where H2L1 = N,N′-bis(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-1,3-propylenediamine and H 2L2 = N,N′-bis(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-1,3- propylenediamine, have been investigated. Both complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of I has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The coordination geometry around cobalt(III) ion is best described as a distorted octahedron. The electrochemical studies of these complexes revealed that the first reduction process corresponding to Co(III/II) is electrochemically irreversible accompanied by dissociation of the axial Co-N(Py) bonds. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Schiff bse ligands and their corrsponding complexes have been tested against human pathogenic bacterias such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. The cobalt(III) complexes showed lower antimicrobial activity than the free Schiff base ligands. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

INDEX KEYWORDS: Anti-bacterial activity; Anti-microbial activity; Cobalt complexes (III); Coordination geometry; Electrochemical studies; Pathogenic bacterias; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteria; Chelation; Cobalt; Escherichia coli; Functional groups; Ligands; X ray diffraction, Synthesis (chemical)

Dutkiewicz, G., Salehi, M., Amoozadeh, A., Ghasemi, M., Rezaei, A., Kubicki, M. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structure of α-glucosimino- pyranose anthranilic acid (2013) Journal of Chemical Crystallography, 43 (2), pp. 59-64.

DOI: 10.1007/s10870-012-0379-5

The new secondary amine, build of glucose and anthranilic acid - α-glucosiminopyranose anthranilic acid (1) - has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Crystal and molecular structure of the hydrate of 1 has been determined by means of X-ray diffraction. 1·H2O crystallizes in monoclinic P21 space group, with a = 15.584(3) Å, b = 4.992(1) Å, c = 18.928(4) and β = 107.63(3)°. The studies prove that a cyclic secondary amine is formed instead of open chain Schiff base, and only one anomer, α is produced. There are two symmetry-independent molecules of 1·H2O in the asymmetric part of the unit cell, and these independent molecules create complicated hydrogen bonded structures - starting with the homomolecular chains which in turn are joined into three dimensional structure. The differences in the supramolecular structures are correlated with the differences in the bond angles patterns, which result from the different orientations of certain O-H bonds. The antibacterial activities of 1 were also tested but the results were negative. © 2012 The Author(s).

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Anthranilic acid; Crystal structure; Glucose; Hydrogen bonding; Secondary amine ligand

Salehi, M., Dutkiewicz, G., Rezaei, A., Amoozadeh, A., Rahmani, S., Grivani, G.H., Kubicki, M. Synthesis, antibacterial studies and crystal structures of tridentate schiff base ligand and it's cobalt(III) complex (2012) Journal of Chemical Crystallography, 42 (8), pp. 871-878.

DOI: 10.1007/s10870-012-0329-2

The crystal structures of 4-[(2-hydroxyphenyl) imino]-2-pentanone (H 2hpac, 1) and its cobalt(III) complex [Co III(hpac)py 3] +·PF 2 - (2) have been determined by X-ray diffraction. The ligand 1 crystallizes in orthorhombic chiral P2 12 12 1 space group, with a = 8.8405(4) Å, b = 10.5349(8) Å, c = 11.2292)7( Å), and the complex 2-in the centrosymmetric monoclinic P2/n space group, with a = 16.496(5) Å, b = 10.171(2) Å, c = 16.646(5) Å, and β = 95.53(3)°. In the ligand molecule quite strong intramolecular hydrogen bond closes six-membered ring. The bond length pattern within this ring suggests the significant conjugation and the structure might be therefore regarded as the intermediate between keto-enamine and zwitterionic forms, and the intramolecular hydrogen bond falls into category of resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds. In turn, intermolecular O-H·O hydrogen bonds connect the molecules of the ligand into infinite chains along [100] direction. In the complex, the Co(III) ion is hexa-coordinated, by two oxygen and one nitrogen atoms of the doubly- deprotonated ligand 1 and by three nitrogen atoms from three pyridine ligands. The coordination polyhedron is close to a slightly distorted octahedron. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Schiff base ligand and its corresponding complex have been tested against human pathogenic bacterias such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Biological activity; Co complex; Hydrogen bonds; Schiff base; Tridentate ligands
INDEX KEYWORDS: Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus